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Seputar C++

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Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Wed 01 May 2013, 18:58

C++

The C++ Programming Language, written by its architect, is the seminal book on the language.
Multi-paradigm:[1] procedural, functional, object-oriented, generic
1983
Bjarne Stroustrup


  • Bjarne Stroustrup
  • Bell Labs
  • ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG21
ISO/IEC 14882:2011 (2011)
Static, unsafe, nominative
C++ Builder, LLVM Clang, Comeau C/C++, GCC, Intel C++ Compiler, Microsoft Visual C++, Sun Studio
Embedded C++, Managed C++, C++/CLI, C++/CX
Perl, LPC, Lua, Pike, Ada 95, Java, PHP, D, C99, C#,[2] Falcon, Seed7
Cross-platform (multi-platform)
.h .hh .hpp .hxx .h++ .cc .cpp .cxx .c++


  • News, status & discussion about Standard C++
  • C++ Programming at Wikibooks

C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features.[3] Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, C++ was originally named C with Classes, adding object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. The language was renamed C++ in 1983,[4] as a pun involving the increment operator.

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages[5][6]
and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system
platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application
domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.[7] Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, Microsoft, Intel and Embarcadero Technologies. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C#[2] and Java. Other successful languages such as Objective-C use a very different syntax and approach to adding classes to C.

C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.[8]

The language began as enhancements to C, first adding classes, then virtual functions, operator overloading, multiple inheritance, templates and exception handling, among other features. After years of development, the C++ programming language standard was ratified in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998. The standard was amended by the 2003 technical corrigendum, ISO/IEC 14882:2003. The current standard extending C++ with new features was ratified and published by ISO in September 2011 as ISO/IEC 14882:2011 (informally known as C++11).[9]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Etymology
    • 1.2 Standardization
    </li>
  • 2 Philosophy
  • 3 Standard library
  • 4 Language features

    • 4.1 Operators and operator overloading
    • 4.2 Memory management
    • 4.3 Templates
    • 4.4 Objects
    • 4.5 Polymorphism
    </li>
  • 5 Parsing and processing C++ source code
  • 6 Compatibility

    • 6.1 Exported templates
    • 6.2 With C
    </li>
  • 7 Criticism
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External link
History






Bjarne Stroustrup, creator of C++


Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish and British trained computer scientist, began his work on "C with Classes" in 1979.[4]
The idea of creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's
experience in programming for his Ph.D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were very helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing. Remembering his Ph.D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like
features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable
and widely used. Besides C and Simula, some other languages that
inspired him were ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. At first, the class, derived class, strong typing, inlining, and default argument features were added to C via Stroustrup's C++ to C compiler, Cfront. The first commercial implementation of C++ was released on 14 October 1985.[10]

In 1983, the name of the language was changed from C with Classes to C++ (++ being the increment operator in C). New features were added including virtual functions, function name and operator overloading,
references, constants, user-controlled free-store memory control,
improved type checking, and BCPL style single-line comments with two
forward slashes (//). In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, providing an important reference to the language, as there was not yet an official standard.[11] Release 2.0 of C++ came in 1989 and the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language was released in 1991.[12] New features included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, and protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published. This work became the basis for the future standard. Late feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, and a Boolean type.

As the C++ language evolved, the standard library evolved with it. The first addition to the C++ standard library was the stream I/O library which provided facilities to replace the traditional C functions such as printf and scanf. Later, among the most significant additions to the standard library, was a large amount of the Standard Template Library.

C++ is sometimes called a hybrid language.[13]

It is possible to write object oriented or procedural code in the
same program in C++. This has caused some concern that some C++
programmers are still writing procedural code, but are under the
impression that it is object oriented, simply because they are using
C++. Often it is an amalgamation of the two. This usually causes most
problems when the code is revisited or the task is taken over by another
coder.[14]

C++ continues to be used and is one of the preferred programming languages to develop professional applications.[15]

Etymology


According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C".[16]
During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as
"new C", then "C with Classes". The final name is credited to Rick Mascitti
(mid-1983) and was first used in December 1983. When Mascitti was
questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was
given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. It stems from C's "++" operator (which increments the value of a variable) and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. A joke goes that the name itself has a bug: due to the use of post-increment,
which increments the value of the variable but evaluates to the
unincremented value, C++ is no better than C, and the pre-increment ++C
form should have been used instead.[17] There is no language called "C plus". ABCL/c+
was the name of an earlier, unrelated programming language. A few other
languages have been named similarly to C++, most notably C-- and C#.

Standardization


YearC++ StandardInformal name1998200320072011
ISO/IEC 14882:1998[18]C++98
ISO/IEC 14882:2003[19]C++03
ISO/IEC TR 19768:2007[20]C++TR1
ISO/IEC 14882:2011[21]C++11
In 1998, the C++ standards committee (the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG21 working group) standardized C++ and published the international standard ISO/IEC 14882:1998 (informally known as C++98).
For some years after the official release of the standard, the
committee processed defect reports, and in 2003 published a corrected
version of the C++ standard, ISO/IEC 14882:2003. In 2005, a technical report, called the "Library Technical Report 1"
(often known as TR1 for short), was released. While not an official
part of the standard, it specified a number of extensions to the
standard library, which were expected to be included in the next version
of C++.

The latest major revision of the C++ standard, C++11, (formerly known as C++0x) was approved by ISO/IEC on 12 August 2011.[22] It has been published as 14882:2011.[23] There are plans for a minor(C++14) and a major revision (C++17) in the future.[24]

C++14 is the name being used for the next revision. C++14 is planned
to be a small extension over C++11, featuring mainly bug fixes and small
improvements, similarly to how C++03 was a small extension to C++98.
While the name 'C++14' implies a release in 2014, this date is not
fixed.

Philosophy


In The Design and Evolution of C++ (1994), Bjarne Stroustrup describes some rules that he used for the design of C++:[page needed]


  • C++ is designed to be a statically typed, general-purpose language that is as efficient and portable as C
  • C++ is designed to directly and comprehensively support multiple programming styles (procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming)
  • C++ is designed to give the programmer choice, even if this makes it possible for the programmer to choose incorrectly
  • C++ is designed to be compatible with C as much as possible, therefore providing a smooth transition from C
  • C++ avoids features that are platform specific or not general purpose
  • C++ does not incur overhead for features that are not used (the "zero-overhead principle")
  • C++ is designed to function without a sophisticated programming environment

Inside the C++ Object Model (Lippman, 1996) describes how compilers may convert C++ program statements into an in-memory layout. Compiler authors are, however, free to implement the standard in their own manner.

Standard library


The 1998 ANSI/ISO C++ standard consists of two parts: the core language and the C++ Standard Library; the latter includes most of the Standard Template Library
(STL) and a slightly modified version of the C standard library. Many
C++ libraries exist that are not part of the standard, and, using
linkage specification, libraries can even be written in languages such
as BASIC, C, Fortran, or Pascal. Which of these are supported is compiler-dependent.

The C++ standard library incorporates the C standard library with
some small modifications to make it optimized with the C++ language.
Another large part of the C++ library is based on the STL. This provides
such useful tools as containers (for example vectors and lists), iterators to provide these containers with array-like access and algorithms to perform operations such as searching and sorting. Furthermore (multi)maps (associative arrays)
and (multi)sets are provided, all of which export compatible
interfaces. Therefore it is possible, using templates, to write generic
algorithms that work with any container or on any sequence defined by
iterators. As in C, the features of the library are accessed by using the #include directive to include a standard header. C++ provides 105 standard headers, of which 27 are deprecated.

The STL was originally a third-party library from HP and later SGI, before its incorporation into the C++ standard. The main architect behind STL is Alexander Stepanov,
who experimented with generic algorithms and containers for many years.
When he started with C++, he finally found a language where it was
possible to create generic algorithms (e.g., STL sort) that perform even
better than, for example, the C standard library qsort, thanks to C++
features like using inlining and compile-time binding instead of
function pointers. The standard does not refer to it as "STL", as it is
merely a part of the standard library, but many people still use that
term to distinguish it from the rest of the library (input/output
streams, internationalization, diagnostics, the C library subset, etc.).

Most C++ compilers provide an implementation of the C++ standard
library, including the STL. Compiler-independent implementations of the
STL, such as STLPort,[25]
also exist. Other projects also produce various custom implementations
of the C++ standard library and the STL with various design goals.

Language features


C++ inherits most of C's syntax. The following is Bjarne Stroustrup's version of the Hello world program that uses the C++ Standard Library stream facility to write a message to standard output:[26][27]



# include

int main()
{
std::cout << "Hello, world!\n";
}


Within functions that define a non-void return type, failure to
return a value before control reaches the end of the function results in
undefined behaviour (compilers typically provide the means to issue a diagnostic in such a case).[28] The sole exception to this rule is the main function, which implicitly returns a value of zero.[29]

Operators and operator overloading


Operators that cannot be overloadedOperatorSymbolScope resolution operatorConditional operatordot operatorMember selection operator"sizeof" operator"typeid" operator
::
?:
.
.*
sizeof
typeid
C++ provides more than 35 operators,
covering basic arithmetic, bit manipulation, indirection, comparisons,
logical operations and others. Almost all operators can be overloaded for user-defined types, with a few notable exceptions such as member access (. and .*) as well as the conditional operator. The rich set of overloadable operators is central to using C++ as a domain-specific language. The overloadable operators are also an essential part of many advanced C++ programming techniques, such as smart pointers.
Overloading an operator does not change the precedence of calculations
involving the operator, nor does it change the number of operands that
the operator uses (any operand may however be ignored by the operator,
though it will be evaluated prior to execution). Overloaded "&&" and "||" operators lose their short-circuit evaluation property.

Memory management


C++ supports four types of memory management:


  • Static memory allocation. A static variable
    is assigned a value at compile-time, and allocated storage in a fixed
    location along with the executable code. These are declared with the
    "static" keyword (in the sense of static storage, not in the sense of
    declaring a class variable).
  • Automatic memory allocation. An automatic variable is simply declared with its class name, and storage is allocated on the stack
    when the value is assigned. The constructor is called when the
    declaration is executed, the destructor is called when the variable goes
    out of scope, and after the destructor the allocated memory is
    automatically freed.
  • Dynamic memory allocation. Storage can be dynamically allocated on the heap using manual memory management - normally calls to new and delete (though old-style C calls such as malloc() and free() are still supported).
  • With the use of a library, garbage collection is possible. The Boehm garbage collector is commonly used for this purpose.

The fine control over memory management is similar to C, but in
contrast with languages that intend to hide such details from the
programmer, such as Java, Perl, PHP, and Ruby.

Templates


See also: Template metaprogramming and Generic programming
C++ templates enable generic programming.
C++ supports both function and class templates. Templates may be
parameterized by types, compile-time constants, and other templates. C++
templates are implemented by instantiation at compile-time. To
instantiate a template, compilers substitute specific arguments for a
template's parameters to generate a concrete function or class instance.
Some substitutions are not possible; these are eliminated by an
overload resolution policy described by the phrase "Substitution failure is not an error" (SFINAE). Templates are a powerful tool that can be used for generic programming, template metaprogramming,
and code optimization, but this power implies a cost. Template use may
increase code size, because each template instantiation produces a copy
of the template code: one for each set of template arguments. This is in
contrast to run-time generics seen in other languages (e.g., Java) where at compile-time the type is erased and a single template body is preserved.

Templates are different from macros: while both of these compile-time
language features enable conditional compilation, templates are not
restricted to lexical substitution. Templates are aware of the semantics
and type system of their companion language, as well as all
compile-time type definitions, and can perform high-level operations
including programmatic flow control based on evaluation of strictly
type-checked parameters. Macros are capable of conditional control over
compilation based on predetermined criteria, but cannot instantiate new
types, recurse, or perform type evaluation and in effect are limited to
pre-compilation text-substitution and text-inclusion/exclusion. In other
words, macros can control compilation flow based on pre-defined symbols
but cannot, unlike templates, independently instantiate new symbols.
Templates are a tool for static polymorphism (see below) and generic programming.

In addition, templates are a compile time mechanism in C++ that is Turing-complete, meaning that any computation expressible by a computer program can be computed, in some form, by a template metaprogram prior to runtime.

In summary, a template is a compile-time parameterized function or
class written without knowledge of the specific arguments used to
instantiate it. After instantiation, the resulting code is equivalent to
code written specifically for the passed arguments. In this manner,
templates provide a way to decouple generic, broadly applicable aspects
of functions and classes (encoded in templates) from specific aspects
(encoded in template parameters) without sacrificing performance due to
abstraction.

Objects


Main article: C++ classes
C++ introduces object-oriented programming (OOP) features to C. It offers classes, which provide the four features commonly present in OOP (and some non-OOP) languages: abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. One distinguishing feature of C++ classes compared to classes in other programming languages is support for deterministic destructors, which in turn provide support for the Resource Acquisition is Initialization (RAII) concept.

Encapsulation


Encapsulation
is the hiding of information to ensure that data structures and
operators are used as intended and to make the usage model more obvious
to the developer. C++ provides the ability to define classes and
functions as its primary encapsulation mechanisms. Within a class,
members can be declared as either public, protected, or private to
explicitly enforce encapsulation. A public member of the class is
accessible to any function. A private member is accessible only to
functions that are members of that class and to functions and classes
explicitly granted access permission by the class ("friends"). A
protected member is accessible to members of classes that inherit from
the class in addition to the class itself and any friends.

The OO principle is that all of the functions (and only the
functions) that access the internal representation of a type should be
encapsulated within the type definition. C++ supports this (via member
functions and friend functions), but does not enforce it: the programmer
can declare parts or all of the representation of a type to be public,
and is allowed to make public entities that are not part of the
representation of the type. Therefore, C++ supports not just OO
programming, but other weaker decomposition paradigms, like modular programming.

It is generally considered good practice to make all data
private or protected, and to make public only those functions that are
part of a minimal interface for users of the class. This can hide the
details of data implementation, allowing the designer to later
fundamentally change the implementation without changing the interface
in any way.[30][31]

Inheritance


Inheritance allows one data type to acquire properties of other data types. Inheritance from a base class
may be declared as public, protected, or private. This access specifier
determines whether unrelated and derived classes can access the
inherited public and protected members of the base class. Only public
inheritance corresponds to what is usually meant by "inheritance". The
other two forms are much less frequently used. If the access specifier
is omitted, a "class" inherits privately, while a "struct" inherits
publicly. Base classes may be declared as virtual; this is called virtual inheritance.
Virtual inheritance ensures that only one instance of a base class
exists in the inheritance graph, avoiding some of the ambiguity problems
of multiple inheritance.

Multiple inheritance
is a C++ feature not found in most other languages, allowing a class to
be derived from more than one base classes; this allows for more
elaborate inheritance relationships. For example, a "Flying Cat" class
can inherit from both "Cat" and "Flying Mammal". Some other languages,
such as C# or Java, accomplish something similar (although more limited) by allowing inheritance of multiple interfaces
while restricting the number of base classes to one (interfaces, unlike
classes, provide only declarations of member functions, no
implementation or member data). An interface as in C# and Java can be
defined in C++ as a class containing only pure virtual functions, often
known as an abstract base class
or "ABC". The member functions of such an abstract base class are
normally explicitly defined in the derived class, not inherited
implicitly. C++ virtual inheritance exhibits an ambiguity resolution
feature called dominance.

Polymorphism


See also: Polymorphism in object-oriented programming
Polymorphism enables one common interface for many implementations, and for objects to act differently under different circumstances.

C++ supports several kinds of static (compile-time) and dynamic (run-time) polymorphisms.
Compile-time polymorphism does not allow for certain run-time
decisions, while run-time polymorphism typically incurs a performance
penalty.

Static polymorphism


Function overloading
allows programs to declare multiple functions having the same name (but
with different arguments). The functions are distinguished by the
number or types of their formal parameters.
Thus, the same function name can refer to different functions depending
on the context in which it is used. The type returned by the function
is not used to distinguish overloaded functions and would result in a
compile-time error message.

When declaring a function, a programmer can specify for one or more parameters a default value.
Doing so allows the parameters with defaults to optionally be omitted
when the function is called, in which case the default arguments will be
used. When a function is called with fewer arguments than there are
declared parameters, explicit arguments are matched to parameters in
left-to-right order, with any unmatched parameters at the end of the
parameter list being assigned their default arguments. In many cases,
specifying default arguments in a single function declaration is
preferable to providing overloaded function definitions with different
numbers of parameters.

Templates in C++ provide a sophisticated mechanism for writing generic, polymorphic code. In particular, through the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern,
it's possible to implement a form of static polymorphism that closely
mimics the syntax for overriding virtual functions. Because C++
templates are type-aware and Turing-complete, they can also be used to let the compiler resolve recursive conditionals and generate substantial programs through template metaprogramming. Contrary to some opinion, template code will not generate a bulk code after compilation with the proper compiler settings.[32]

Dynamic polymorphism


Inheritance


Variable pointers (and references) to a base class type in C++ can
refer to objects of any derived classes of that type in addition to
objects exactly matching the variable type. This allows arrays and other
kinds of containers to hold pointers to objects of differing types.
Because assignment of values to variables usually occurs at run-time,
this is necessarily a run-time phenomenon.

C++ also provides a dynamic_cast operator, which allows
the program to safely attempt conversion of an object into an object of a
more specific object type (as opposed to conversion to a more general
type, which is always allowed). This feature relies on run-time type information (RTTI). Objects known to be of a certain specific type can also be cast to that type with static_cast, a purely compile-time construct that is faster and does not require RTTI.

Virtual member functions


Ordinarily, when a function in a derived class overrides
a function in a base class, the function to call is determined by the
type of the object. A given function is overridden when there exists no
difference in the number or type of parameters between two or more
definitions of that function. Hence, at compile time, it may not be
possible to determine the type of the object and therefore the correct
function to call, given only a base class pointer; the decision is
therefore put off until runtime. This is called dynamic dispatch. Virtual member functions or methods[33]
allow the most specific implementation of the function to be called,
according to the actual run-time type of the object. In C++
implementations, this is commonly done using virtual function tables. If the object type is known, this may be bypassed by prepending a fully qualified class name before the function call, but in general calls to virtual functions are resolved at run time.

In addition to standard member functions, operator overloads and
destructors can be virtual. A general rule of thumb is that if any
functions in the class are virtual, the destructor should be as well. As
the type of an object at its creation is known at compile time,
constructors, and by extension copy constructors, cannot be virtual.
Nonetheless a situation may arise where a copy of an object needs to be
created when a pointer to a derived object is passed as a pointer to a
base object. In such a case, a common solution is to create a clone() (or similar) virtual function that creates and returns a copy of the derived class when called.

A member function can also be made "pure virtual" by appending it with = 0 after the closing parenthesis and before the semicolon. A class containing a pure virtual function is called an abstract data type.
Objects cannot be created from abstract data types; they can only be
derived from. Any derived class inherits the virtual function as pure
and must provide a non-pure definition of it (and all other pure virtual
functions) before objects of the derived class can be created. A
program that attempts to create an object of a class with a pure virtual
member function or inherited pure virtual member function is
ill-formed.

Parsing and processing C++ source code


It is relatively difficult to write a good C++ parser with classic parsing algorithms such as LALR(1).[34]
This is partly the result of the C++ grammar not being LALR. Because of
this, there are very few tools for analyzing or performing non-trivial
transformations (e.g., refactoring) of existing code. One way to handle this difficulty is to choose a different syntax. More powerful parsers, such as GLR parsers, can be substantially simpler (though slower).

Parsing (in the literal sense of producing a syntax tree) is not the
most difficult problem in building a C++ processing tool. Such tools
must also have the same understanding of the meaning of the identifiers
in the program as a compiler might have. Practical systems for
processing C++ must then not only parse the source text, but be able to
resolve for each identifier precisely which definition applies (e.g.,
they must correctly handle C++'s complex scoping rules) and what its
type is, as well as the types of larger expressions.

Finally, a practical C++ processing tool must be able to handle the
variety of C++ dialects used in practice (such as that supported by the GNU Compiler Collection and that of Microsoft's Visual C++)
and implement appropriate analyzers, source code transformers, and
regenerate source text. Combining advanced parsing algorithms such as
GLR with symbol table construction and program transformation machinery can enable the construction of arbitrary C++ tools.

Compatibility


Producing a reasonably standards-compliant C++ compiler has proven to
be a difficult task for compiler vendors in general. For many years,
different C++ compilers implemented the C++ language to different levels
of compliance to the standard, and their implementations varied widely
in some areas such as partial template specialization. Recent releases of most popular C++ compilers support almost all of the C++ 1998 standard.[35]

To give compiler vendors greater freedom, the C++ standards committee decided not to dictate the implementation of name mangling, exception handling, and other implementation-specific features. The downside of this decision is that object code produced by different compilers is expected to be incompatible. There were, however, attempts to standardize compilers for particular machines or operating systems (for example C++ ABI),[36] though they seem to be largely abandoned now.

Exported templates


One particular point of contention is the export
keyword, intended to allow template definitions to be separated from
their declarations. The first widely available compiler to implement export was Comeau C/C++, in early 2003 (five years after the release of the standard); in 2004, the beta compiler of Borland C++ Builder X was also released with export. Both of these compilers are based on the EDG C++ front end. Other compilers such as GCC do not support it at all. Beginning ANSI C++
by Ivor Horton provides example code with the keyword that will not
compile in most compilers, without reference to this problem. Herb Sutter, former convener of the C++ standards committee, recommended that export be removed from future versions of the C++ standard.[37]
During the March 2010 ISO C++ standards meeting, the C++ standards
committee voted to remove exported templates entirely from C++11, but
reserve the keyword for future use.[38]

With C


For more details on this topic, see Compatibility of C and C++.
C++ is often considered to be a superset of C, but this is not strictly true.[39]
Most C code can easily be made to compile correctly in C++, but there
are a few differences that cause some valid C code to be invalid or
behave differently in C++.

One commonly encountered difference is that C allows implicit conversion from void* to other pointer types, but C++ does not. Another common portability issue is that C++ defines many new keywords, such as new and class, that may be used as identifiers (e.g., variable names) in a C program.

Some incompatibilities have been removed by the 1999 revision of the C standard (C99), which now supports C++ features such as line comments (//),
and mixed declarations and code. On the other hand, C99 introduced a
number of new features that C++ did not support, such as variable-length arrays, native complex-number types, designated initializers, and compound literals.[40] However, at least some of the C99-introduced features were included in the subsequent version of the C++ standard, C++11[41][42]:


  • C99 preprocessor (including variadic macros, wide/narrow literal concatenation, wider integer arithmetic)
  • _Pragma()
  • long long
  • __func__
  • Headers:

    • cstdbool (stdbool.h)
    • cstdint (stdint.h)
    • cinttypes (inttypes.h).

To intermix C and C++ code, any function declaration or definition
that is to be called from/used both in C and C++ must be declared with C
linkage by placing it within an extern "C" {/*...*/} block. Such a function may not rely on features depending on name mangling (i.e., function overloading).

Criticism

Due to its large feature set and oft-perceived "strict" syntax, the
language is sometimes criticized as being overly complicated and thus
difficult to fully master.[43]

C++ is sometimes compared unfavorably with more strictly
object-oriented languages on the basis that it enables programmers to
"mix and match" declarative, functional, generic, modular, and procedural programming styles with object-oriented programming, rather than strictly enforcing a single style, although C++ is intentionally a multi-paradigm language.[1] It also lacks some features such as reflection, although adding the latter has been contemplated.[44]

A widely distributed satirical article portrayed Bjarne Stroustrup, interviewed for a 1998 issue of IEEE's Computer magazine,[45]
confessing that C++ was deliberately designed to be complex and
difficult, weeding out amateur programmers and raising the salaries of
the few programmers who could master the language. The FAQ section of
Stroustrup's personal website contains a denial and a link to the actual
interview.[46]

Richard Stallman criticizes C++ for having ambiguous grammar and "gratuitous, trivial incompatibilities with C [...] that are of no great benefit".[47] Linus Torvalds said in a famous email[48] that C++ was a 'horrible language'.

Finally, several authors have remarked that C++ is not a true object-oriented language.

<blockquote class="templatequote">
The same problem occurs with programming languages.
As stated earlier, many C programmers moved into the realm of object
orientation by migrating to C++ before being directly exposed to OO
concepts. This would always come out in an interview. Many times
developers who claim to be C++ programmers are simply C programmers
using C++ compilers. [...] We have already mentioned that C++ is not a
true object-oriented programming language but is actually an
object-based programming language. Remember that C++ is considered to be
object-based. Object-oriented concepts are not enforced. You can write a
non-object-oriented C program using a C++ compiler.
—Matt Weisfeld, [49]
</blockquote>
<blockquote class="templatequote">
It is interesting to see what is being done out in
the world under the name object-oriented. I have been shown some very,
very strange looking pieces of code over the years, by various people,
including people in universities, that they have said is OOP code
written in an OOP language—and actually I made up the term
object-oriented, and I can tell you, I didn't have C++ in mind.
—Alan Kay, Smalltalk co-creator, [50]
Spoiler:
Maaf kalo udah banyak yg tahu
Spoiler:
Hampir Mirip GML

</blockquote>


Terakhir diubah oleh Pinneaple Studios tanggal Tue 21 May 2013, 18:21, total 2 kali diubah (Reason for editing : Berantakan XD)
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Wed 01 May 2013, 19:02

nice sih, tpi berantakan trit ny Hammer

emg mirip GML, pascal/delphi juga mirip, cz GM di bikin pke delphi Very Happy
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Wed 01 May 2013, 19:07

@KBC
dah dirapihin dikit om Razz
GM Dibuat pake delphi?
Meh
Kurang Greget
Coba GM Dibuat Pake GM
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Wed 01 May 2013, 19:41

GM di buat pke GM?
greget banget
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Asuna on Wed 01 May 2013, 19:49

nice share Very Happy
tapi ini termasuk pelajaran pemrograman yang wajib dikuasai Hammer
anyway setidaknya sejarah & asal usulnya buat nambah pengetahuan Very Happy

btw GML lebih mirip ke C++

@PS
Yo dawg GMception Pacman
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Wed 01 May 2013, 19:54

C++ wajib dikuasai?
kalo dah dikuasai jadi mother of programming gitu?
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Asuna on Wed 01 May 2013, 20:13

wajib ya wajib Razz
salah satu dari bahasa pemrograman yang bisa dimasukkan dalam pelajaran TIK selain Pascal dan Java (tapi bukan berarti semuanya)
untuk yang lainnya seperti Basic, Ada, dan scripting Ruby, Javascript, dll bisa anda pelajari sendiri Very Happy
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Thu 02 May 2013, 09:52

btw C++ ad versi interface ny gk ya? Razz
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Thu 02 May 2013, 12:49

cara buat aplikasi dari C++ gimana? tinggal bikin gitu kodenya? di Notepad++?
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Thu 02 May 2013, 12:59

@PS:
pake borland C++, atau bisa pke compiler lain kyk turbo C++
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Asuna on Thu 02 May 2013, 13:32

entah ada yang bilang borland C++ ga bagus Hammer
mending pake gcc, atau pake turbo C++ buat bikin program 16-bit Very Happy

Notepad++ cuma sebagai text editor, buat ngedit codingannya Razz
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Thu 02 May 2013, 13:53

dulu mau download borland C++, tpi gk kuat Razz (males nyari yg size ny lbih kecil)
jdi cma download borland delphi doank, cma 90mb Very Happy

bagus atau gk juga gk tau, cz gk prnah nyoba.
utk notepad++ sih bisa langsung tes run utk bahasa html dkk nya Very Happy tpi kalo C++ gk bisa tuh
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Mon 06 May 2013, 11:26

BUMP
Sekarang aku tau bahwa sebenernya sebagian virus dibuat memakain C++
seperti virus LoveLetter/ILOVEYOU
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Asuna on Mon 06 May 2013, 11:55

^
lebih spesifiknya lagi bagiannya pake assembly, karena di C++ ada "asm" buat nulis code assembly, dan code assembly bisa memungkinkan untuk merusak system, bahkan code C++ sendiri juga bisa memungkinkan untuk menyebabkan crash (mis. manipulasi memory yg digunakan pada bag. eksekusi programnya sendiri atau yang lain)
btw itu cenderung juga dipake sma hacker Hammer
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Mon 06 May 2013, 12:22

^
C++ itu mnurutku bahasa program yg paling bebas menjelajahi system komputer, apapun bisa di lakukan,, jdi wajar kalo C++ di pke utk bikin virus Very Happy
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Mon 06 May 2013, 17:11

Waalah Gawat dong kalo begitu mah.
Salah langkah bisa fatal dong
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Mon 06 May 2013, 19:27

kalo gk teliti bisa kena sndiri XD
kyk pengalaman ku waktu bikin software Desktop Locker XD
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Pinneaple Studios on Mon 06 May 2013, 19:39

@KBC=gmana pengalamannya?
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Mon 06 May 2013, 20:06

kalo C++ blum prnh bikin software, baru belajar, tpi gk nyangkut di otak Hammer

kalo yg desktop locker udah sering XD
pas debugging password ny gk working, malah ter-lock desktop ku, untung ak yg bikin tuh software, jdi ak tau kelemahan ny Very Happy
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Agan on Mon 06 May 2013, 22:27

Kevin Blaze Coolerz wrote:btw C++ ad versi interface ny gk ya?

Ga ada lah om...

wong bukan pemrograman visual kok..
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Tue 07 May 2013, 10:19

@agan:
hehehe, enak kalo ad Razz

btw ak msih adik mu XD umur kmu 19 & ak baru 17 Very Happy
so, jgn panggil "om" Hammer
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Agan on Tue 07 May 2013, 14:37

Behh kalo sampe ada ane pasti bakal pelajarin sampe bisaaaaaa

btw om itu cuma panggilan aja kali...

lol!
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Kevin Blaze Coolerz on Tue 07 May 2013, 14:45

pelajari GM aja Razz
ak yg udh lama pke GM (skitar 3 tahun) aja msih bnyk yg blum ak kuasai Very Happy cz function di GM makin bnyk Very Happy

ooh, hehehe
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Agan on Tue 07 May 2013, 15:05

Kalo GM jarang di pake di dunia kerja..

kecuali ente mau bikin dev sendiri
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Re: Seputar C++

Post by Asuna on Tue 07 May 2013, 17:46

mau pake GM atau apapun, bahkan untuk keperluan bisnis juga gapapa Very Happy
kecuali atasanmu nyuruh harus bikin pake yang "ini" Razz
atau masalah reliabilitas/performance yang mendorong utk pake yang lain
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Re: Seputar C++

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